The Madagascar day gecko is yet another specie that has been introduced into the wild in the state of Florida. These reptiles belong to the gecko family, the genus (classification of animals) Phelsuma, and the species madagascariensis, These cool green geckos reside on the island of Madagascar, and they usually live in rainforest trees. The Madagascar day gecko is one of the largest species of day geckos, and can grow to be just under 9 inches in length. They are a green-blue color with brown-brick red spots down their backs, and a similarly colored stripe from their nostrils to behind their eye. While these geckos are mostly found in the trees of the rainforest, deforestation has caused them to lose much of their usual habitat, and they have been known to dwell in villages and live inside the huts and banana trees on the eastern coast of Madagascar as a result. These brightly colored creatures eat insects and fruit (but only if it is soft!), and have been known to eat pollen and nectar as well.
Madagascar Day Geckos are very common in the pet trade, and they are easily kept and bred for sale in the United States. Usually housed alone, these lizards can be very territorial and even male-female pairs will occasionally fight. They thrive in 50-60% humidity and 80-90 degrees Fahrenheit, making them perfectly suited for Florida weather. Day geckos were first reported as being seen in Florida in the 1990s. There is one population in one county which has been reported as sustainable and breeding on their own, and have been sightings in three other counties where breeding has not been reported.
The most established population of day geckos is located in the Florida Keys. They are seen on white mangroves, buttonwood trees, buildings, and other man-made structures near mangrove estuaries. They were first reported outside of the Keys, in Broward county in 1999. These animals were confirmed as released or escaped pets, and the population in the Keys is a result of a single introductory event. Due to their popularity in the pet trade, and the suitability of Florida weather, a pet breeder released many adult individuals with the intention of having them breed and he harvests the hatchlings to be sold as pets.
This is another great example of how easy it is for nonnative animals to become established in areas where they do not belong. The geckos do not appear to have an adverse impacts on native Florida wildlife, however species such as the Argentine tegu and Burmese python were released and are wreaking havoc on native animals in Florida.
There are over 40 different species of day gecko, but the Madagascar day gecko is one of the most well known species. Below are photo of other day gecko species:
Photos Provided by: https://www.arkive.org/ and https://www.flickr.com/photos/cas_docents/
For more information on Day Geckos in Florida:
Florida Museum Report
Rehoming a pet can often times be difficult to do, especially for no-so-furry-friends, but Florida is trying to make it a bit easier. The Cooperative Invasive Species Management Areas (CISMAs) along with Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) have come together to hold an even called Exotic Pet Amnesty Day. During this event people are able to drop off their pet and it will be found a new home with a pre-approved adopter.
This day gives people an alternative to releasing their exotic pet into the wild. When exotic pets are released into natural environments they can cause disruptions which are damaging to the ecosystem. Some examples of the havoc released pets can cause are the Burmese python and the Argentine black and white tegu in the Florida Everglades. These two species have populations in the wilds of Florida which originated from released or escaped pets. They both eat many native animals, and this impact can be seen in the decline of mammals throughout areas where pythons are present in Florida. The tegu, a known egg-eater, threatens the protected American Crocodile, ground nesting birds, and turtle species including sea turtles.
The early set up allows for pet owners to drop off and register their animals for adoption. Two Golden thread turtles that were dropped off to be adopted are pictured below. The Amnesty day accepts all types of animals, from sulcata tortoises to parrots to all kinds of snakes. Every animal that is surrendered gets a visual examination by a volunteer veterinarian. The vet will give the animal a quick examination to assess what condition it is in and if it can be adopted out. The below pictured Veiled chameleon receives a vet examination. The veiled chameleon can be found in populations scattered throughout south and central Florida, all of which are suspected to be human released individuals.
After the vet gives the animals a clear bill of health they are set along tables with information about their previous home – their species, name, age, sex, any of their quirks for the new owners to be aware of, toys and food preferences, and any notes from the vet. When the surrender period is over, the adopters are allowed to walk the line of tanks and cages to see what animals are available to be adopted. After the viewing, each adopter is randomly assigned a number, and those numbers are randomly drawn to give the order adopters may chose the animal(s) they wish to bring home. Once every adopter has had their chance, the hope is that every animal surrendered has been taken to a new home. Any animal not selected at the event is taken to a holding facility, and a notice is sent to approved adopters to find them a home with people who may not have attended the amnesty day event.
It is a happy new beginning for every animal and adopter who attends. The most recent pet amnesty day was held in West Palm Beach, Florida on the 19th of August 2018. I was able to volunteer at this event, and saw dozens of animals surrendered. Red-eared slider turtles, yellow belly slider turtles, golden thread turtles, Russian tortoises, hamsters, cockatoos and cocktails, just over a half dozen ball pythons, and even prairie dogs! It was amazing to see just how many candidates were brought in to be put up for adoption. Every animal that was given up was taken home by the end of the adoption event.
Since 2006 this Pet Amnesty Day program has been very successful at rehoming animals that are no longer desired, difficult to care for, or are unable to be cared for. Below are annual summaries of each Amnesty event in Florida - I hope the totals continue to rise as the years go on.
Learn More about Pet Amnesty Day...
Monk Parakeet, Quaker Parrot
The Monk parakeet, which is also commonly called the Quaker parrot, is a bird which grows to be approximately 11 inches in length from tail tip to top of head, and has bright green coloration with a grey breast and green-yellow belly. This bird originated from temperate and subtropical areas of Argentina and other surrounding countries in South America. This is a very common bird, which has expanded its native range as eucalyptus forestry industry also expanded. The forestry industry provided artificial forest habitat for the parrots to nest with little competition from other species for resources.
In the pet trade, these parakeets are known to make wonderful companions due to their ability to develop a wide vocabulary of words and phrases. These critters are anything but quiet, and are quick to learn mimicry and perform tricks when they are motivated by treats and praise. They are also available in a variety of color mutations including blue and “cinnamon”.
Although they are such wonderful pets, the Monk parakeet is actually banned for sale in many states. This bird has established feral populations in Spain, Portugal, Azores, Madeira, Balearic Islands, Gibraltar, France, Corsica, Malta, Cyprus, Sardinia, Italy, Greece, Channel Islands, Great Britain, Ireland, Belgium, British Columbia, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Israel, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Easter Island, Puerto Rico, South Korea, Japan, and the United States. Thousands of parakeets were imported to the USA in the 1960s-1980s (Lund, Nicholas. "The Monk Parakeet: A Jailbird Who Made Good". Audubon. Audubon. Retrieved 9 December 2016.), and many escaped or were intentionally released which cause several established populations to occur across seven states. The most prolific population exists in Florida, with estimates of 150,000 to 500,000 individuals (Gorman, James (8 September 2004). "Birds do it, bees do it ..." San Diego Union Tribune. New York Times News Service. Retrieved 9 December 2016.) Due to being seen as a pest, the parakeet has been banned for sale in California, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Hawaii, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Wyoming, and Western Australia.
This invasive bird has been growing exponentially, with no show of slowing down until 2016. They have very few natural predators, diseases or other factors that would limit their population growth. Although they are thought to be agricultural pests, the real concern with Monk parakeets revolves around their massive nesting aggregations. The Monk parakeet builds its nest from sticks, and often are seen to breed in colonies where they will collectively build one large nest with multiple entrances for the various pairs of birds utilizing the space. Some of these collective nests have been seen to reach the size of small cars! These birds live to be 15-20 years old in the wild and as captive pets (Fasbach, Laura (23 July 2001). "A squawk in the park". Edgewater Online. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2008.). They often nest on man-mad structures including electrical poles and cellphone towers, causing them to have a heavy impact on electrical companies in several states. The most common method of control is through the removal of nests and trapping of the birds. There is also reproductive control possible through contraception, which is a long-term, non-lethal population management strategy.
Hello all! Last year you may remember a blog post I made on the impacts of Argentine black and white tegus where they are introduced in Florida. Since last year there has been some further development on what tegu species are residing in Florida, what the tegus are eating, and how easy it is to accidentally lose a beloved (and expensive!) pet.
As a quick recap of my previous post: the Argentine black and white tegu is a large lizard native to South America – specifically Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina. These lizards can reach up to four feet in length, spend most of their time on land, but can swim and remain submerged for long periods. These critters are intelligent, and when kept as house pets can be very attached to their owners and quite docile – making them wonderful pets. However, as the tegu grows very large it can become more work than their owners care to give, many owners and individuals who sell animals in the pet trade become irresponsible and release their Tegu into the wild. Occasionally, beloved pets are lost when not kept in a secure outdoor enclosure, not watched appropriately, or accidentally get loose and run away.
Currently there are three species of tegus in Florida – the Argentine black and white tegus (Salvator merianae), Gold tegus (Tupinambis teguixin), and Red tegus (Salvator rufescens).
The Argentine black and white tegu is the most apparent of all tegus in Florida. They have established populations in south Florida and central Florida, which occurred from two separate incidents of introduction. In the past year it has been seen that these tegus eat many vertebrate species including lizards, turtles, birds, rodents, and snakes in addition to native and nonnative plant species and insects. They pose a huge threat to ground nesting birds, American Alligators, and American Crocodiles, as they love to consume eggs. The Argentine tegus also have a “morph” or a genetic combination that is seen in the pet trade called a “Blue Tegu” which have also been seen in south Florida. These Blue Tegus are thought to be escaped pets, which range from $300-$400 in retail price at pet stores, while regular black and white tegus retail for under $200. Althought they are of special color morph, these blue tegus are still Argentine black and white tegus which means they can survive and damage the natural ecosystems in Florida.
The Gold tegu is very similar to the Argentine tegus. They are from South America, and have been trapped in Florida since 2008. They can grow up to three feet in length, and usually live in the tropical forests of northern and central South America, and Panama. In their native range they are known to feed on insects, invertebrates, small mammals, reptiles, birds, fish, and fruit. This means they are likely eating similar item sin Florida, although nothing is currently known about their dietary habits. What is known about the Florida population is that they are reproductively active. Hatchling, juveniles, and adults have been captured over the past decade. It is theorized that the Gold tegus have been introduced via the pet trade industry. To read more about the Gold tegu in Florida this paper by J. Edwards et al. is a great place to start! These animals retail for approximately $50, but they are also not as commonly kept as pets due to their naturally aggressive temperament.
The red tegu has been seen recently in the popular video on social media posted above! Quite a wonderful companion. This is one of the largest of the Tupinambis species and usually grows to be four feet in length or longer. They are powerful tunnelers and love to dig where they are native. They use these burrows for refuge during the day and night, as well as shelter for their eggs. They are known to eat birds, rodents, eggs, and other reptiles - making them another prime candidate for impacting the environment in Florida! There have been a total of eleven sightings since 2007 that span through seven counties in Florida. The Red tegu goes for a retail price of $200-$300, and for this reason it is also thought that the animals seen were escaped pets.
All three species of tegus go through brumation (reptile hibernation), where they reduce activity and resign to burrows for the cooler months of the year. This is one of the many reasons why tegus are such a formidable invasive animal in Florida! They have potential of surviving much further north than even the Burmese python. As you can see, these animals do cost quite a pretty penny. The red tegu, Argentine Tegu, and Blue tegus all retail for $200 or more, and it is common to see household pets brought in from neighborhoods, parks, and other urban areas. They are great diggers and will escapes outside enclosures, porches, fences, and even harness/leash if they put their mind to it! The most commonly encountered tegu are still wild Argentine tegus, but it is interesting to see what other morphs and species are also present in the Florida ecosystem! I hope you all have enjoyed the update.
About the Author: Jenna is a graduate student at the University of Florida. Currently she is studying Wildlife Ecology and Conservation while working in south Florida to manage invasive animals. Jenna primarily works with the Argentine Black and White Tegu and other invasive lizards.
The Common Agama, Rainbow Lizard
The Common Agama is native to Africa and can comfortably occupy urban, suburban, rural and undeveloped habitats. In Africa they occur in desert, dune, savanna, forest, rainforest, and mountainous areas. This lizard is yet another non-native species that can be found in southern Florida. They occur in Dade, Charlotte, Broward, and Seminole counties; likely posing threat to native insect and small vertebrates. There are several subspecies of agamas, and Florid has a mixture of West African subspecies and East African subspecies. The West African subspecies have bright orange-red heads that fades to a blue-indigo body, and end with a lighter blue-white tail tipped with black. They can reach up to 12 inches in length and are a diurnal species which can be seen moving around during the daytime.
The diet of these lizards consists of mostly grasshoppers, ants, beetles (James and Porter 1979), flowers, grasses, and discarded human food (e.g., candy, bread, cake, carrot pieces (Romer 1953, Chapman and Chapman 1964, Harris 1964, Cloudsley-Thompson 1981). Adults have also been known to eat their own young. They display behaviors similar to that of Bearded Dragons – the adults will perform head nods, head bobs or push-ups, and basking. The head nods and head bobs are commonly used as challenge displays between males, or to entice females who are wearing their reproductive colors. Basking is common in the morning between 10 AM and noon, with the dominant males holding the best basking position, followed by the sub-males, and then females.
Female agamas will lay two clutches of eggs each breeding season, usually between the months of June through September. The sex of the eggs is determined by the temperature of the soil, with males being produced in warmer temperatures than females. In Florida the lizards are established and have been breeding for at least ten years in Charlotte and Dade county, and for less than ten years in Broward, Seminole, and Martin counties; there is also a population in Monroe county which has not yet been reported as breeding.
Links and papers:
Chapman, B. M,. and R. F. Chapman. 1964. Observations on the biology of the lizard Agama agama in Ghana. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 143:121-132.
Clodusley-Thompson, J. L. 1981. Bionomics of the rainbow lizard Agama agama (L.) in eastern Nigeria during the dry season. Journal of Arid Environments 4:235-245.
Harris, V. A. 1964. The life of the rainbow lizard. Hutchinson Tropical Monographs. 174pp.
James, F. C, and W. P. Porter. 1979. Behavior-microclimate relationships in the African rainbow lizard, Agama agama. Copeia 1979:585-593.
Romer, J. D. 1953. Reptiles and amphibians collected in the Port Harcourt area of Nigeria. Copeia 1953:121-123.
Iguanas have become one of the most common invasive reptile seen in southern Florida. You can find them in trees, crossing streets, eating the flowers in your garden... Two of the more well known species of iguanas in Florida are pictured below - the Black Spinytail Iguana (Photo by Jeff Whitlock, 2013) and the Green Iguana (Photo by Save the Prairie Society, August 3, 2017).
Black Spinytail Iguana (Ctenosaura similis)
This species is native to southern Mexico, and was first noticed in Florida in 1978. Currently it has established its self breeding populations in Dade, Lee, and Charlotte counties in Florida. Adult males of this species can reach four feet in length, and females remain smaller. These lizzards are primarily terrestrial species, and are extremely wary of humans. When they feel threatened these iguana will retreat to their burrows for safety, however they are able to climb quite well if they are unable to safely reach their burrow (Bartlett and Bartlett 1999).
The habitats that this iguana is able to exploit are very broad. They can be found living on coastal uplands, in exotic plant communities, low density suburban developments, agricultural fields, and areas surrounding core urban areas and small towns. Over the years this species has spread across south Florida. First thought to be established in Lee county (1980), then Collier county (1998), and finally Broward county (2002); this species was introduced due to released or escaped animals intended for the pet trade.
The distribution of Black Spinytail Iguanas in Florida, 10 February 2018.
Green Iguana (Iguana iguana)
The Green Iguana is a large lizard that is also nonnative to Florida. This species, like the Black Spinytail Iguana, was introduced through the pet trade as well. The Green iguana lives terrestrially, and can be seen on the ground and in shrubs and trees all over suburban developments, urban areas, small towns, and agricultural areas. They are excellent swimmers, can tolerate fresh and salt waters, and can remain under water for up to four hours at a time. Male Green iguanas can grow over five feet in length and weigh just under 20 lbs, while females usually do not exceed 7 lbs at full maturity.
Originating in Central America to the tropics of South America and some eastern Carribbean islands, the Green iguana was first reported in Florida in the 1960s in Hialeah, Coral Gables, and Key Biscayne. Now the popualtions spread along the Atlantic coast in Broward, Martin, Miami-Dade, Monroe, and Palm Beach Counties; along with the Gulf Coast in Collier and Lee counties.
Distribution of the Green Iguana in Florida (EDDMAPS, 10 February 2018)
Status in Their Native Ranges
Although the Green Iguana has not been formally assessed in its native range, both it and the Black Spinytail Iguana are listed as being of least concern where they originate from. This means that they are exhibiting characteristics of a healthy population that is reproductively active and not exposed to any threats which may cause them to become threatened, endangered, or extinct.
Diet and Impacts
The diet of the iguanas includes a wide variety of vegetation. They are known to eat shoots, leaves, blossoms, and fruits of plants including nickerbean, hibiscuses, garden greens, jasmine, orchids, roses, Washington fan palms, squashes, and melons. They also occasionally feed on bird eggs, carrion, insects, and tree snails.
Due to their diet, iguanas pose a threat of damage to residential and commercial landscape vegetation and are considered a nuisance animal by property owners. They are most attracted to trees with fruit and flowers, with the exception of citrus. The dig burrows, which can erode and collapse sidewalks, foundations, sea walls, berms, and canal banks. They pose a threat to native and endangered species of tree snails, as well as have the potential to spread diseases and infectious bacterium Salmonella to other reptiles and to humans through water contact or surfaces contaminated with feces.
Iguanas can be legally removed year round with land owner permission. They are not protected by any laws except for the anti-cruelty laws. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) encourages the removal of Green iguanas on private land by landowners, and captured iguanas can be kept as personal pets or humanely euthanized. The iguanas cannot, however, be relocated and released at other locations.
In order to deter iguanas from your own property you can alter the habitat around our home ot humanely harass the animals until they leave. Some effective methods are: removing plants that act as attractants; filling in holes to discourage burrowing; putting wind chimes or other items in the yard to make intermittent noises; hanging CDs or other reflective material outside; and spraying the animals with water.
Iguanas in the Florida Keys
Dealing with Iguanas
Iguana Assistance for Homeowners
The spectacled caiman got its name from the bony ridge between its eyes which give it the appearance of wearing a pair of glasses. These caiman can grow up to approximately nine feet in length, with females being of smaller size than males. They have a stout snout, and a triangular ridge of skin atop each eye which give the appearance of a type of 'eye brow'. Mature individuals are olive-green with faint black spots and banding on their tails, this coloration is usually more distinct in younger individuals. Its coloration overall is quite variable, with some individuals having different coloration, sizes, and skull shape - these features have led to distinction between three subspecies of spectacled caiman.
Range and Biology:
This species is widely distributed compared to other crocodilians. The spectacled caiman and its subspecies can be found in Mexico, Peru, Brazil, Venezuela, Columbia, Bolivia, and Ecuador - it has also been introduced as a nonnative species in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Florida, USA. Theses animals thrive in all lowland wetland and riverine habitats, preferring bodies of still water like lakes, ponds, and marshes. They are also tolerant to moderate salinity.
The caiman is highly adapted for water life. It is a superb swimmer and aquatic predator. The adult caiman feed on fish, amphibians, reptiles, and water foul - particularly large individuals have also been know to take on mammals including deer and pigs! In dry conditions when food sources are scare this species is also known to cannibalize smaller individuals.
The spectacled caiman was first sighted in Florida in 1960, and span across two counties in the state. It poses threat to a variety of native vertebrates and competes for food and space with the native American alligators. They are presumed to have been released or escaped from the pet trade, and can be found in Broward and Dade counties throughout marshes, lakes, ponds, and canals. These crocodilian are susceptible to colder weather, which has confined them from moving further north. There have been efforts to remove the caiman populations, and in 2001 a nest of 41 eggs was found and collected, and 39 of those eggs hatched in captivity. Since 1970 there have been no reports of breeding, however the populations are still present.
Florida has more nonnative reptiles and amphibians than anywhere else in the world with more than 60 that are established and breeding. South Florida has a subtropical climate, island-like geography (water on three sides, frost to the north), major ports of trade which provide plants and animals entry into the United States, thriving trade in exotic pets, and occasional destructive hurricanes which increases risk of escapes.
Africa’s largest snake, the African rock python, are breeding in a small area of south Florida (estimated 6 square miles of land). The African rock python has a thick, long body, which is patterned in blotches that range from brown, olive, and yellow-toned tan, which form irregular stripes and chunky-block pattern. It has a triangular head and many sharp, backwardly curved teeth, and is covered in small smooth scales. Around the mouth are heat-sensitive pits, which are used to detect warm-blooded prey, even in the dark. African rock pythons are found throughout almost the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, from Senegal east to Ethiopia and Somalia and south to Namibia and South and western Africa.
Image: Edward Mercer, a non-native wildlife technician for Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, holds a North African Python during a press conference in the Florida Everglades about the non-native species on January 29, 2015 in Miami, Florida (Image source: Jan. 28, 2015 - Source: Joe Raedle/Getty Images North America)
FWC In Florida, these snakes are a high priority species for management due to their large size and because of the extensive invasion of a similar species, the Burmese Python. They are very difficult to find, so determining how many north African rock pythons are present within the area is challenging.
Detection for the Burmese Python is between 0.005 and 0.01, and if we assume north African pythons are similar, then we would need over 300 visits to the area with no observations of pythons before it could be concluded with 95% confidence that the north African rock python population is not expanding.
There are efforts being carried out by Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) and the University of Florida (UF) to research and remove the north African rock pythons from the wild in Florida. Biologists from FWC and UF, along with South Florida Water Management, and a handful of other organizations conduct surveys each week to locate these snakes. This year alone there have been two live captures of the African pythons, and one dead-on-arrival python which was run over with a commercial grade lawn mower. Recently, this species has been completely banned in the state of Florida, which means no new animals can be imported or exported from the state. Removal efforts have been in place since the first python sightings occurred in 2001, and banning this species will help keep these pythons from becoming as big a nuisance as the Burmese python.
More information on the Northern African rock python can be found by following the links below:
FWC Pest Brochure
Sun Sentinel News Article
What is EIRAMP?
This Everglades Invasive Reptile and Amphibian Monitoring Program (EIRAMP) was developed as a method for monitoring the spread of exotic species in southern Florida. South Florida is prone to invasion by nonnative species due to its sub-tropical climate; mosaic of agricultural, natural, and urban habitats; and island-like geography being surrounded by water on three sides and freezing temperatures to the north. The state of Florida alone currently hosts more established alien reptiles than any other state or nation (Meshaka et al. 2004). The natural portions of land are under increasing pressure from invasion by nonnative species, and current methods of interception and eradication of invaders has not been able to match the increasing threats.
Prevention of the introduction of invasive species is the best defense against invasions. Followed by the early detection of invaders and rapid response efforts towards their removal. Once populations are established and wide=spread the option for management becomes limited and expensive. Surveying current habitat for native amphibians, reptiles, and mammals alongside invasive species aids in determining the impact exotic species have in southern Florida. This monitoring program was developed to establish the status and spread of existing populations of invasive reptiles and amphibians, provides early detection and rapid response for removal of invasive species, and to provide information on the invasive animals collected while surveying.
The areas being surveyed have potential for detection of nonnative amphibians, reptiles, and mammals; there are currently 22 areas, with potential for additions if there are particular areas of concern. The surveys conducted once a month, within 30 minutes of sunset. While driving or walking, animal species that are observed are identified and recorded on a data sheet. This information, along with the GPS location, habitat type (parking lot, tree, road, etc.), and the number of individuals observed. Invasive animals (primarily Burmese Pythons) are removed when encountered.
Environmental information including time of night, temperature, humidity, and general weather (rainy, clear, cloudy) are also recorded. At the end of each survey the data recorded is entered into a computer database. Once in the database, all of the surveys can be sorted through. For example, I could ‘search’ for every animal seen under “cloudy” conditions; or for every “Burmese Python” that was encountered.
What Do We Learn?
All of the information recorded during these surveys is put towards management plans and other scientific studies. All of the categories of information can be analyzed for patterns. For example: Looking at temperature and species, we may see a pattern in what animals are seen at certain temperatures; or time of night; or weather...see what I'm saying? This information can then be used to supplement management plans for the removal or control of invasive animals; it can also be used to monitor the populations of native animals. If we see an increase in Burmese Python sightings over the years, and a decrease in the sighting of native snakes, it may imply that Burmese Python presence is influencing the presence of native snakes. This is very important information, especially when threatened species are involved.
The most important part of these surveys are the number of surveys carried out. The more surveys conducted over several years, the more information and patterns may emerge. Data from 2012 compared to data from 2017 may reveal shocking differences in the the number of invasive species encounters, or in the type of native species encountered (more mammals than reptiles?); it even can show a change in the weather or temperature over time (very wet or dry year; hot or colder?). All of this data is ever growing, and it is never going to become irrelevant. The more we know, the more we can do to help stop invasive animals from spreading.
Wildlife Trade is an industry that revolves around transport of animals to be utilized for multiple goods and services. The demand for live animals varies in different areas of the world, but the bottom line is that animals are traded A LOT. The figure below shows the number of animals imported into JUST the USA from 1999-2010. Pretty crazy, right?
With all of this trade going on there is bound to be consequences - animals are lost or escape from shipments. The release of these traded animals results in the spread of diseases. Chytrid fungus and rainavirus are decimating native amphibian populations, and both were spread due to the trade of wildlife. Not only can these diseases impact other animals, but the SARS virus and Avian flu are both diseases spread by animals to humans.
Trade of animals occurs legally and illegally, and can result in over exploitation of wild populations. The trade industry is unsustainable, and it is one of the biggest threats to biodiversity. An even bigger threat to biodiversity is the invasion of nonnative species - a threat that is directly linked to the trade of wildlife. The trade of wildlife has increased gradually over many years - which means it is likely that nonnative introductions has increased as well.
I have hammered the threats posed by nonnative species in previous posts, especially when the nonnative species becomes an invasive one. Invasive species are any species (plants, animals, any organism) that cause economical damage, ecological damage, or threaten human health. The USA spends over $137 billion every year to manage these introduced animals even with all the regulations in place to monitor trade.
There are several policies that exist to protect wildlife from trade including:
- The Endangered SPecies Act
-Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITIES)
-Migratory Bird Act
-Wild Bird Conservation Act
These, along with various regulations at the state level, are put in place to prevent introduction, but it is not so simple. There is much man power, money, and time that is needed to dedicate for preventing introduction of species - and there is a lack of money to pay for the man power to monitor ALL of the shipments and trade involving flora and fauna; not to mention any escaped or released pets.
The demand for live animal trade is desired all over the world - from food to boots to ancient medicinal cures, live animals are wanted everywhere. This wildlife trade has introduced many species all over the world, not just in the USA. Australia, England, Guam, Japan, China, Puerto Rico, and many other countries are experiencing the impacts of nonnative specie introductions. The wildlife trade will never be shut down, but the depletion of wild animals will surly cause the market to crash.
I encourage the purchase of captive-bred (CB) animals. Although hard to find for some unique species, captive bred pets do not support the wildlife trade or depletion of wild populations. Every little bit of effort counts, support your local breeders!
*****This post has adapted a powerpoint presentation given by Dr. Christina Romagosa on wildlife trade. The information provided is my summary of her presentation that was given to a college Conservation Biology course earlier this year.*****
About the blog
Ferrets and Friends, LLC has four writers bringing you information on a variety of topics from pets to wildlife, education to conservation, and from new developments in our business to information about our industry. Learn something new each week!